Stefan, M., Fuster, G. G. (2018). cross-border access to electronic data through judicial cooperation in criminal matters. State of the Art and recent developments in the European Union and the United States (No. 2018-07; CEPS Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe). Centre for European Political Studies. www.ceps.eu/ceps-publications/cross-border-access-electronic-data-through-judicial-cooperation-criminal-matters/ A lot of evidence is clear; But some of the evidence is encrypted. In 2015 and 2016, an additional chapter was added to the long-standing controversy over FBI-Apple encryption. The controversy continues in 2019, as several nation states are pressuring Facebook to place a backdoor into its messaging service.  As with C.
Cocq and F. Galli, « The Use of Surveillance Technologies for the Prevention, Investigation and Prosecution of Serious Crime, » (2015), 41, EUI Working Papers, Department of Law, , accessed 20 May 2020, 1, p. 48, with regard to the European legal framework relating to privacy, data storage has an impact on privacy and data protection rights, fundamental rights under art. 7 and 8 CFR. Any restriction or penetration must be clearly regulated, necessary and proportionate to its purpose and preserve the core of limited fundamental rights.↩ basis of cross-border access is the Law on Stored Communications, amended by the Law ON THE NUAGE. A new agreement has been negotiated with the United Kingdom and « will enter into force after a six-month review of Congress, imposed by the CLOUD Act, and the related review by the British Parliament. »  Before considering the percentages, it should be noted that the definition of electronic evidence used in TS2 differs from that of the EPO regulation or impact analysis. The TS2 glossary defines « electronic evidence » as « electronically stored data, such as participant information, metadata (connection/traffic/location) or content generated by activities related to electronic communications services, telecommunications and other internet-based or application-based services. » Therefore, electronic evidence is not limited to data stored by a number of service providers or digital services, but refers to a broader concept of « electronically stored data. » Nevertheless, on the basis of the TS2 figures, the Commission uses the quantitative relevance of E-Evidence, as understood in the e-vidence proposal.